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Hầu hết các mặt hàng đồ trang sức làm bằng kim loại quý

Trang sức Em và Tôi 9 năm trước 1218 lượt xem

Hầu hết các mặt hàng đồ trang sức làm bằng kim loại quý

    Hầu hết các mặt hàng đồ trang sức làm bằng kim loại quý

    Hầu hết các mặt hàng đồ trang sức làm bằng kim loại quý được đóng dấu với thông tin về mức độ tinh khiết của hàm lượng kim loại. Nói chung là tem được đặt ở một nơi kín đáo vào mục để nó không làm ảnh hưởng đến thiết kế. Tem thường sẽ được đặt bên trong một chiếc nhẫn, trên bài hoặc giỏ đặt trên một đôi bông tai, được tại ngoại (phần mà các trang trình bày chuỗi) trên một mặt dây chuyền, và vào vòng kết nối hoặc clasp trên một chiếc vòng cổ hoặc vòng đeo tay. Tất cả tem đồ trang sức tuân thủ hướng dẫn nghiêm ngặt theo quy định của Ủy ban Thương mại Liên bang.

    Bảng dưới đây liệt kê các tem phổ biến nhất quý kim loại, tem hoặc dấu hiệu thay thế của họ, mức độ tinh khiết của họ, và các hợp kim thường được sử dụng.

    Kim loại Tem
    Tem kim loại Tỷ lệ tối thiểu của kim loại tinh khiết Hợp kim chung **
    0,925 Sterling SilverNgoài ra: 925 Sterling, Sterling Silver * 92,5% bạc nguyên chất tốt Thường đồng

    10k Ngoài ra: 16, 417, 10KP *

    41,6% vàng nguyên chất (10 phần trong số 24) Thường bạc, đồng, kẽm, niken và

    14k Ngoài ra: 583, 585, 14KP *

    58,3% vàng nguyên chất (14 phần trong số 24) Thường bạc, đồng, kẽm, niken và

    18k Ngoài ra: 750, 18KP *

    75% vàng nguyên chất (18 phần trong số 24) Thường bạc, đồng, niken, và palladium (vàng trắng)

    22k Ngoài ra: 916, 917 *

    91,6% vàng nguyên chất (22 phần trong số 24) Thường bạc và đồng

    24k Ngoài ra: 999 *

    100% vàng nguyên chất (24 phần trong số 24) Không ai

    900 PlatinumNgoài ra: 900 Plat, Sơ đồ 900, Pt900, 900Pt *

    90% nguyên chất bạch kim (900 phần ra 1.000) Kim loại ruthenium, rhodium, palladium và bạch kim nhóm khác

    950 PlatinumNgoài ra: plat, PT, 950 Plat, Sơ đồ 950, Pt950, 950Pt *

    95% nguyên chất bạch kim (950 phần ra 1.000) Kim loại ruthenium, rhodium, palladium và bạch kim nhóm khác

    * Tem thay thế hoặc dấu hiệu châu Âu 
    ** Có thể thay đổi tùy thuộc vào màu sắc mong muốn, chẳng hạn như vàng trắng hoặc vàng hồng

    Các thông tin khác

    • Thuật ngữ "karat" (thường được viết tắt là "k", "K", hoặc "Kt") đề cập đến độ tinh khiết tương đối của vàng, vàng tinh khiết là 24 karats. "Karat" khác với "carat", mà là một đơn vị số liệu trọng lượng cho đá quý.
    • Trong bối cảnh vàng trang sức, "thẳng đứng" là một thuật ngữ cũ mà có nghĩa là độ mịn hoặc mức độ tinh khiết của hàm lượng vàng chính xác là những gì được đóng dấu vào mục. Từ "Plumb" hoặc chữ P vẫn đôi khi sau dấu kim loại (ví dụ: "14k Plumb," "14KP").




    Most jewelry items made of precious metal are stamped with information about the purity level of the metal content. Generally the stamp is placed in an inconspicuous place on the item so it does not detract from the design. Stamps will usually be located on the inside of the band on a ring, on the post or basket setting on a pair of earrings, on the bail (the part that the chain slides through) on a pendant, and on the connecting ring or the clasp on a necklace or bracelet. All jewelry stamps adhere to strict guidelines set by the Federal Trade Commission.

    The table below lists the most common precious metal stamps, their alternative stamps or hallmarks, their purity level, and alloys commonly used.

     

    Metal Stamps
    Metal stamp Minimum percentage of pure metal Common alloys**
    .925 Sterling Silver
    Also: 925 Sterling, Sterling Silver*
    92.5% pure fine silver Usually copper

    10k
    Also: 16, 417, 10KP*

    41.6% pure gold (10 parts out of 24) Usually silver, copper, zinc, and nickel

    14k
    Also: 583, 585, 14KP*

    58.3% pure gold (14 parts out of 24) Usually silver, copper, zinc, and nickel

    18k
    Also: 750, 18KP*

    75% pure gold (18 parts out of 24) Usually silver, copper, nickel, and palladium (for white gold)

    22k
    Also: 916, 917*

    91.6% pure gold (22 parts out of 24) Usually silver and copper

    24k
    Also: 999*

    100% pure gold (24 parts out of 24) None

    900 Platinum
    Also: 900 Plat, Plat 900, Pt900, 900Pt*

    90% pure platinum (900 parts out of 1,000) Ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, and other platinum group metals

    950 Platinum
    Also: PLAT, PT, 950 Plat, Plat 950, Pt950, 950Pt*

    95% pure platinum (950 parts out of 1,000) Ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, and other platinum group metals

    *Alternate stamp or European hallmark
    **May vary depending on desired color, such as white gold or rose gold

    Additional Information

    • The term "karat" (usually abbreviated as "k," "K," or "Kt") refers to the relative purity of gold; pure gold is 24 karats. "Karat" is different from "carat," which is a metric unit of weight for gemstones.
    • In the context of gold jewelry, "plumb" is an old-fashioned term that means that the fineness or purity level of the gold content is precisely what is stamped on the item. The word "Plumb" or the letter P still sometimes follows the metal stamp (e.g. "14k Plumb," "14KP")



    14k trắng và màu vàng vàng
    14k vàng trắng và vàng là kim loại quý phổ biến và bền vững cho đồ trang sức. Vàng nguyên chất, mà các biện pháp 24 karats, quá mềm để sử dụng trong đồ trang sức. Nó là hợp kim với các kim loại khác - bạc, đồng, niken, kẽm - để tăng sức mạnh và độ bền của nó. 14k vàng trắng không phải là màu trắng như bạch kim, vì nó được làm từ kim loại màu vàng được bật màu trắng chủ yếu là thông qua các hợp kim niken. Hầu hết các mặt hàng vàng trắng có mạ rhodium rằng mòn đi theo thời gian, do đó kim loại có thể nhìn vàng hơn theo tuổi tác. Một số người thích màu trắng hơi ấm của vàng trắng hơn bạch kim của xám trắng.

    18k trắng và Vàng
    Do những tiến bộ gần đây trong công nghệ hợp kim, vàng 18k bây giờ được coi là bền như 14k vàng. Vì vàng 18k có một tỷ lệ cao hơn của vàng nguyên chất, nó có một màu vàng phong phú hơn so với 14k vàng và hơi nặng. Một cơ sở vàng 18k có thể có giá khoảng 25% đến 65% so với các thiết lập tương tự trong 14k vàng.

    Platinum
    Platinum có độ bền tuyệt vời trong việc tổ chức đá quý. Nó là hiếm hơn vàng 35 lần. Một mục đồ trang sức bạch kim có thể có giá khoảng 60% đến 200% so với các thiết lập tương tự trong 18k vàng, và 100% đến 300% so với các thiết lập tương tự trong 14k vàng.


    14k White and Yellow Gold
    14k white and yellow gold are popular and durable precious metals for jewelry. Pure gold, which measures 24 karats, is too soft for use in jewelry. It is alloyed with other metals--silver, copper, nickel, and zinc--to increase its strength and durability. 14k white gold is not as white as platinum, as it is made from a yellow metal that is turned white mostly through nickel alloys. Most white gold items have a rhodium plating that wears away over time, so the metal may look more yellow with age. Some people prefer the slightly warmer white of white gold over platinums grayer white.

    18k White and Yellow Gold
    Due to recent advances in alloy technology, 18k gold is now generally considered to be as durable as 14k gold. Because 18k gold has a higher percentage of pure gold, it has a richer gold color than 14k gold and is slightly heavier. An 18k gold setting can cost approximately 25% to 65% more than the same setting in 14k gold.

     

    Platinum
    Platinum has great durability in holding precious stones. It is 35 times rarer than gold. A platinum jewelry item can cost approximately 60% to 200% more than the same setting in 18k gold, and 100% to 300% more than the same setting in 14k gold.

     

    pe

    Round By far the most preferred diamond shape, the round-brilliant cut is also the most optically brilliant because of its 360-degree symmetrical shape. A round brilliant is a great choice if you want the most sparkle and the most enduring classic shape. The round shape has been cut for centuries, but in 1919, Marcel Tolkowsky defined specific angles and proportions to yield the most brilliant diamond, which form the basis for the modern "Ideal" cut round-brilliant diamond. Round-brilliant diamonds are the only shape to have this ideal proportion defined. The round silhouette works with almost every mounting, from classic solitaires to the most avant-garde designs. Rounds can be set into four or six prongs, based on the design of the setting, or into bezel mountings (a metal band that runs around the edge of the diamond to hold it securely in the setting). In general, if the round brilliant has an Ideal cut or Very Good cut, you want the setting to have the least amount of metal around the stone so that it is held securely but does not cover up too much of the diamond and block light from entering the stone.

     

    Princess The princess cut is a modern classic of clean, square lines and beautiful sparkle. This shape is the perfect choice if you prefer a square or rectangular outline but want the brilliance of a round. Developed in the 1970s, the princess cut is now second only to the round brilliant in popularity. The cutting of this diamond combines the step-cutting of the emerald cut with the triangular facets of the brilliant cut and is cut with right-angle corners. Although most prefer a square outline, some stones are cut with a slightly more rectangular outline. The princess cut works beautifully as a solitaire but also looks great paired with side stones, especially trillions or smaller princess-cut diamonds. It is important to protect the more vulnerable corners with a V-shaped prong at each point

     

    Asscher This elegant shape is a variation on a classic emerald cut, developed in 1902 by the venerable Asscher brothers in Holland. The Asscher cut is not a traditional choice but has gained deserved exposure recently because of celebrities wearing the cut. The uniqueness of this shape is defined by the pavilion, or bottom part of the diamond, that has a "scissor cut" with all facets step-cut down toward the culet, or point on the bottom. The blocked corners add to its geometric appeal, making the diamond appear almost octagonal. It is usually cut to a square outline as opposed to rectangular. This diamond shape is beautiful in a simple solitaire or in a setting that has simple geometric lines or side stones such as baguettes. Ideally, the setting for an Asscher cut should not hide the unique blocked corners.

     

    Marquise The marquise cut is a regal, elongated shape with tapering points at both ends. Its shape tends to flatter the finger, making it appear longer. When choosing a marquise cut, the length-to-width ratio should be considered. Usually a ratio of 2:1.0 is preferred, meaning that the length of the stone should be about 2 times the width of the diamond. However, like all fancy shapes, personal preference prevails, and some may prefer a shorter, wider outline or longer, thinner shape. Just look for good symmetry to ensure overall beauty no matter what outline you prefer. This shape works in a simple solitaire setting or looks beautiful with side stones, especially baguette or trillion shapes. A marquise-cut diamond should be mounted with six prongs: four positioned on the sides to hold the body of the stone securely and two shaped prongs to protect the points at either end, the most vulnerable part of the diamond.

     

    Emerald The emerald-cut diamond is among the most classic of diamond shapes. Its clean lines come from step-cutting, or parallel line facets. It is always cut with blocked corners and is usually cut to a rectangular outline, although a few are cut to be more square. Because of its simpler faceting structure, larger inclusions are sometimes more visible to the unaided eye, so diamonds cut in this shape usually need to be higher clarity (I1or I2 clarities should probably be avoided). Length-to-width ratios should be considered when choosing an emerald cut: usually a 1.50:1.00 ratio is preferred, meaning that the length of the stone should be about 1½ times the width of the diamond. However, like all fancy shapes, personal preference prevails, and some may prefer a squarer outline, or longer, thinner rectangle. An emerald cut is loved by purists and looks especially wonderful set in platinum, in a simple setting or a baguette side-stone setting.

     

    Radiant The radiant cut is a beautiful combination of the classic emerald cut and the sparkle of the round brilliant. The radiant cut is similar to the princess cut but is usually (though not always) a more rectangular outline and has blocked corners like those of an emerald cut. The cutting is a combination of the step-cutting of the emerald-cut diamond with some triangular faceting of the brilliant cut. The radiant cut is dramatic as a solitaire but also looks great paired with side stones such as baguettes, trillions, or princess shapes. A radiant-cut stone should be set with special prongs to hold the blocked corners securely.

     

    Cushion The cushion cut is an unusual diamond shape and an interesting alternative to an oval- or princess-cut diamond. Because these are relatively rare, this shape is for someone who wants something few people possess. The modern cushion shape is based on an antique cushion cut, which is a combination of round and square outline with a softened square or "pillow" shape. A cushion-cut may be squarer with length and width in equal proportion, or may have a slightly elongated outline, depending on the individual stone and the wearers preference. As a solitaire, it makes a statement and also looks wonderful paired with side stones such as baguettes. A cushion-cut diamond setting should have at least four secure prongs.

     

    Pear The pear shape is a beautiful, feminine diamond shape with a rounded end on one side and a tapering point at the other. It is lovely as the center stone in a ring or outstanding as a pendant or pair of drop earrings. As with many fancy shapes, length-to-width ratio should be considered. Usually a ratio of 1.5:1.0 is preferred, meaning that the length of the stone should be about 1½ times the width of the diamond. Some may prefer a shorter, wider outline or a longer, thinner shape. Good symmetry is a must for pear-cut diamonds. This will ensure that light is reflected evenly, especially in the point. The asymmetrical shape should be considered when setting a pear cut, which looks beautiful as a solitaire, or with side stones, especially smaller pear-cut stones or baguettes. A pear-shaped diamond should be mounted in a special setting with five prongs: two to hold the rounded end, two to hold the curved sides of the stone securely, and one V-shaped prong to protect the point at the other end, the most vulnerable part of the diamond.

     

    Oval The oval cut is most similar a round-brilliant cut and combines the rounds sparkle with a flattering, elongated outline. It makes a good choice for someone who wants a unique shape but loves the fire and brilliance of a round diamond. The length-to-width ratio of ovals can vary based on personal preference. Generally a ratio of 1.5:1.0 is preferred, meaning that the length of the stone should be about 1½ times the width of the diamond. However, like all fancy shapes, personal choice should guide you; some may prefer a shorter, wider outline or a longer, thinner shape. The relatively symmetrical shape lends itself well to a variety of mounting styles. Most oval cuts look great in any mounting meant for a round brilliant as long as the setting that holds the diamond has six prongs properly spaced for security.

     

    Heart The heart-shaped diamond is the most romantic of diamond shapes. It is similar to the pear shape but has a cleft in the rounded end that forms the lobes of the heart. The complexity of the shape requires skilled cutting to ensure proper brilliance. Symmetry is a big consideration for this shape, as the outline needs to have a pleasing, obvious heart outline apparent in the setting. The lobes should be rounded (not pointed) and clearly defined. Heart-shaped diamonds should be mounted in special settings with five prongs: two at the lobes of the heart, two on the sides of the heart, and a V-shaped prong to protect the point of the heart, the most vulnerable place on the diamond.

     

    Trillion The trillion cut is a dramatic cut that makes a bold statement. It was developed in the 1970s as a variation of the radiant cut, combining step-cutting and brilliant faceting. While often used as side stones, this cut is rarely used for the center diamond, so it is somewhat scarce in larger sizes. The triangular shape needs to be considered with the style of mounting and would probably go best in a simple solitaire or geometric setting that works with the unique shape. The trillion cut will require a special setting that has V-shaped-prongs to protect the corners of the diamond.